Linux en español

Comando ls

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Usage: ls [OPTION]… [FILE]…
List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor –sort is specified.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
-a, –all do not ignore entries starting with .
-A, –almost-all do not list implied . and ..
–author with -l, print the author of each file
-b, –escape print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters
–block-size=SIZE scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g.,
‘–block-size=M’ prints sizes in units of
1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below
-B, –ignore-backups do not list implied entries ending with ~
-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last
modification of file status information);
with -l: show ctime and sort by name;
otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first
-C list entries by columns
–color[=WHEN] colorize the output; WHEN can be ‘never’, ‘auto’,
or ‘always’ (the default); more info below
-d, –directory list directories themselves, not their contents
-D, –dired generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode
-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls –color
-F, –classify append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
–file-type likewise, except do not append ‘*’
–format=WORD across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l,
single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
–full-time like -l –time-style=full-iso
-g like -l, but do not list owner
group directories before files;
can be augmented with a –sort option, but any
use of –sort=none (-U) disables grouping
-G, –no-group in a long listing, don’t print group names
-h, –human-readable with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes
(e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
–si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
-H, –dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line
follow each command line symbolic link
that points to a directory
–hide=PATTERN do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
(overridden by -a or -A)
–indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none (default), slash (-p),
file-type (–file-type), classify (-F)
-i, –inode print the index number of each file
-I, –ignore=PATTERN do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
-k, –kibibytes default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage
-l use a long listing format
-L, –dereference when showing file information for a symbolic
link, show information for the file the link
references rather than for the link itself
-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries
-n, –numeric-uid-gid like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
-N, –literal print raw entry names (don’t treat e.g. control
characters specially)
-o like -l, but do not list group information
-p, –indicator-style=slash
append / indicator to directories
-q, –hide-control-chars print ? instead of nongraphic characters
–show-control-chars show nongraphic characters as-is (the default,
unless program is ‘ls’ and output is a terminal)
-Q, –quote-name enclose entry names in double quotes
–quoting-style=WORD use quoting style WORD for entry names:
literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
-r, –reverse reverse order while sorting
-R, –recursive list subdirectories recursively
-s, –size print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
-S sort by file size
–sort=WORD sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S),
time (-t), version (-v), extension (-X)
–time=WORD with -l, show time as WORD instead of default
modification time: atime or access or use (-u)
ctime or status (-c); also use specified time
as sort key if –sort=time
–time-style=STYLE with -l, show times using style STYLE:
full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT;
FORMAT is interpreted like in ‘date’; if FORMAT
is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies
to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files;
if STYLE is prefixed with ‘posix-‘, STYLE
takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
-t sort by modification time, newest first
-T, –tabsize=COLS assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time;
with -l: show access time and sort by name;
otherwise: sort by access time
-U do not sort; list entries in directory order
-v natural sort of (version) numbers within text
-w, –width=COLS assume screen width instead of current value
-x list entries by lines instead of by columns
-X sort alphabetically by entry extension
-Z, –context print any security context of each file
-1 list one file per line
–help display this help and exit
–version output version information and exit

The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is 10*1024).
Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,… (powers of 1000).

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and
with –color=never. With –color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment
variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.

Exit status:
0 if OK,
1 if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
2 if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

GNU coreutils online help: <>
Full documentation at: <>
or available locally via: info ‘(coreutils) ls invocation’