Usage: cal [general options] [-hjy] [[month] year]
cal [general options] [-hj] [-m month] [year]
ncal [general options] [-bhJjpwySM] [-s country_code] [[month] year]
ncal [general options] [-bhJeoSM] [year]
General options: [-NC31] [-A months] [-B months]
For debug the highlighting: [-H yyyy-mm-dd] [-d yyyy-mm]
-3 Display the previous, current and next month surrounding today.
-1 Display only the current month. This is the default.
Months to add after. The specified number of months is added to the end of the display. This is in
addition to any date range selected by the -y, -3, or -1 options. For example, “cal -y -B2 -A2” shows
everything from November of the previous year to February of the following year. Negative numbers are
allowed, in which case the specified number of months is subtracted. For example, “cal -y -B-6” shows
July to December. And “cal -A11” simply shows the next 12 months.
Months to add before. The specified number of months is added to the beginning of the display. See -A
-C Switch to cal mode.
-N Switch to ncal mode.
Use yyyy-mm as the current date (for debugging of date selection).
Use yyyy-mm-dd as the current date (for debugging of highlighting).
-M Weeks start on Monday.
-S Weeks start on Sunday.
-b Use oldstyle format for ncal output.
A single parameter specifies the year (1–9999) to be displayed; note the year must be fully specified: “cal
89” will not display a calendar for 1989. Two parameters denote the month and year; the month is either a
number between 1 and 12, or a full or abbreviated name as specified by the current locale. Month and year
default to those of the current system clock and time zone (so “cal -m 8” will display a calendar for the
month of August in the current year).
Not all options can be used together. For example, the options -y, -3, and -1 are mutually exclusive. If
inconsistent options are given, the later ones take precedence over the earlier ones.
A year starts on January 1.
A cal command appeared in Version 5 AT&T UNIX. The ncal command appeared in FreeBSD 2.2.6. The output of
the cal command is supposed to be bit for bit compatible to the original Unix cal command, because its output
is processed by other programs like CGI scripts, that should not be broken. Therefore it will always output 8
lines, even if only 7 contain data. This extra blank line also appears with the original cal command, at
least on Solaris 8
The ncal command and manual were written by Wolfgang Helbig <helbig@FreeBSD.org>.
The assignment of Julian–Gregorian switching dates to country codes is historically naive for many countries.
Not all options are compatible and using them in different orders will give varying results.